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Corrosion Basics: An Introduction

2nd Edition, by Pierre R. Roberge

Top 10 All Time Best Sellers

2006 by NACE Press Book: 7" x 10", hardbound, 364 pages, 77 tables, 292 figures hardbound, ISBN: 1-57590-198-0 ($215)

This second edition is an extensive update to the first and represents NACE's all time best selling book. It is used by many persons who consider the book as a must have reference and professors as a textbook in their courses. The book presents basic concepts to understand how corrosion problems occur and how they can be prevented or controlled with modern tools. Discusses environments (atmospheric, water and steam, soils, reinforced concrete, and high temperature), materials and how they corrode, methods of corrosion control (protective coatings, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibitors, and design considerations), and corrosion testing and monitoring.

Preface to the Second Edition (2006)

As mentioned in the Preface of the First Edition, the original material of the book was first published in 1970. While the corrosion principles did not change much since the lecture notes that became the first edition were assembled in the late 1960’s there have been since then major advances and changes in the technologies used to combat corrosion damage.

When NACE International Publication Committee became interested to update this popular textbook, a few options were discussed. The decision was taken to prepare the new edition with a single author as the most expedient and efficient way of preserving this historical document. Hopefully you will find out for yourself that this has been realized. My main goals throughout this daunting project were to respectfully keep the spirit of the first edition and maintain the quality of the information it conveyed while bringing all these interesting subjects into the twenty first century.

Education in corrosion control was the primary concern and motivation behind the production of the first lecture notes. It was again the primary focus during the production of the first edition. My twenty five years of teaching corrosion and materials engineering added to five years as webmaster of the Corrosion Doctors Web site have aided to keep such focus.

Besides a complete reorganization of the order in which the material is presented and the addition a new sections on electrochemistry and reinforced concrete the readers will find that the new text uses SI units in compliance with NACE International policy. Appendix B presents a conversion table for many non-SI units that some readers may find useful and Appendix A contains the official NACE glossary of corrosion related terms.

Finally I would like to express my gratitude to all the reviewers that have diligently helped to improve the book and particularly to Ken Tator and J.P. Broomfield for their great help with respectively the chapters on protective coatings and on reinforced concrete. (back to top)

P.R. Roberge, Editor of the 2nd edition, July, 2005

Preface to the First Edition (1984)

This book was originally issued as the Basic Corrosion Course in 1970. The utility of that publication can be appreciated when it is realized that 13 printings were necessary to supply the great number of persons interested in the subject.

As envisioned by the Editor in the Introduction of the original book, some revision is necessary with the passage of time. This has been accomplished with a minimum of change from the initial format and material content of the original. The authors of the first edition provided such an excellent coverage of the subject matter that only some rearrangement of the text and updating has been necessary.

Those responsible for the topical matter of the First Edition were as follows: Editor - A. deS. Brasunas; Scope of the Subject - A. deS. Brasunas and N. E. Hamner; Basics - F. L. LaQue and N. D. Greene; Metallurgy - R. F. Hochman; Materials - M. G. Fontana and J. H. Peacock; Localized Corrosion - H. P. Godard; Stress Corrosion Cracking - H. L. Logan; Cathodic Protection and Soils - A. W. Peabody and M. E. Parker; Inhibitors - N. Hackerman and E. S. Snavely; Atmospheric Corrosion - K. G. Compton; Coatings - N. E. Hamner; High Temperature Corrosion - A. deS. Brasunas and J. J. Moran, Jr.; Water Corrosion - W. E. Berry; Testing - B. W. Lifka and F. L. McGeary; Failure Analysis - E. D. Verink.

A great amount of the material written by these authors has been retained. Changes have been made where it was believed a better continuity, less repetition, and more recent data would improve the development of the subject. Those responsible for the revisions are C.P. Dillon, J.S. Snodgrass, L.S. Van Delinder, and H.A. Webster.

This book provides a general coverage of the wide field of corrosion control. It is designed to be helpful to those being initiated into the work, and consequently attempts to present each corrosion process or control procedure in the most basic terms. A comprehensive discussion of the topics has not been attempted. Certainly the book is not represented as providing the latest or most erudite discussion of the subject. Yet for those knowledgeable in the field of corrosion control, we hope that each chapter presents some aspect of the work in terms that are stimulating and helpful. We solicit suggestions for improvement of the work.

To assist the reader, a bibliography is provided at the end of each chapter for those who may want to pursue a topic further. Many of the books which are listed in more than one chapter are obviously regarded as prime sources for corrosion information. The appendix to Chapter 1 contains a list of definitions of corrosion-related terms. A comprehensive and thoroughly cross referenced subject index is located in the back of the book and should provide a ready guide for all persons wishing to find specific items.

Education in corrosion control is our primary concern. We sincerely hope this new edition will contribute even more capably in attaining that goal. As with the preponderance of the first edition, a portion of the Introduction must be repeated: “We trust that ... this book will be of considerable benefit to the nation, to numerous industries, and to individuals all over the world who will take advantage of the opportunity afforded them by this educational effort.” (back to top)

L. S. Van Delinder, Editor and Chairman of Subcommittee ETC-1, NACE Education and Training Committee, May, 1984

Table of Contents

Part I

Scope and Language of Corrosion

1.1 What is Corrosion?

1.2 Purpose of This Book

1.3 Historical Perspective

Electrochemistry of Corrosion

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Why Metals Corrode

2.3 Corrosion Factors

2.4 Chemistry of Corrosion

2.5 Principles of Electrochemistry Applied to Corrosion

2.6 Corrosion Thermodynamics

2.7 Corrosion Kinetics

2.8 Corrosion Prevention by Electrochemical Methods

2.9 Summary

Part II Environments

Atmospheric Corrosion

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Types of Corrosive Atmospheres

3.3 Factors Affecting Atmospheric Corrosion

3.4 Measurement of Atmospheric Factors

3.5 Classification Schemes

3.6 Atmospheric-Corrosion Tests

3.7 Corrosion Behavior and Resistance

Corrosion by Water and Steam

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Water Constituents

4.3 Types of Water

4.4 Scaling Indices

4.5 Cooling Systems

4.6 Water Treatment

4.7 Steam Generation

Corrosion in Soils

5.1 Introduction

5.2 How Do Metals Corrode?

5.3 Pipe-Line Corrosion

5.4 Effects of Coating on Corrosion and on CP

5.5 Effects of Corrosion and CP on a Coating

5.6 Corrosion Surveys

5.7 Other Means of Protecting Steel

5.8 Structures Other than Pipe Lines

5.9 Corrosion of Materials Other than Steel

Reinforced Concrete

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Corrosion Damage in Reinforced Concrete

6.3 Remedial Measures

6.4 Condition Assessment of Reinforced-Concrete Structures

6.5 Other Forms of Concrete Degradation

High-Temperature Corrosion

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Materials

7.3 Basis of Corrosion Resistance

7.4 Corrosion Products

7.5 Corrosion in Air

7.6 Other Gaseous Media

7.7 Molten Phases

7.8 Corrosion in Liquid Metals

7.9 Corrosion in Vacuum

7.10 Mechanical Behavior

Part III Materials and How They Corrode

Engineering Materials

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Materials Selection

8.3 Principles of Metallurgy

8.4 Corrosion Behavior of Metals and Alloys

8.5 Polymeric Materials

8.6 Other Nonmetals

Forms of Corrosion

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Uniform Attack

9.3 Local-Cell Corrosion

9.4 Velocity-Related Corrosion

9.5 Other Types of Local Attack

9.6 Environmental Cracking

Part IV Methods of Control

Protective Coatings

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Protective Coatings: The Systems Approach

10.3 Surface Preparation

10.4 Application of Organic Coatings

10.5 Factors in Coating Selection

10.6 Testing

10.7 Specifications and Inspection

10.8 Failures of Organic Coatings

10.9 Economic Aspects of Coating Use

10.10 Safety

10.11 Summary

Cathodic Protection

11.1 How CP Works

11.2 Criteria for CP

11.3 Design of a CP System

11.4 Factors Affecting CP Design

11.5 Monitoring Pipe-Line CP Systems

11.6 Special Requirements for Specific Applications

11.7 Other Uses of CP

Corrosion Inhibitors

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Basic Types of Inhibitors and How They Work

12.3 Environmental Factors

12.4 Green Inhibitors

12.5 Application Techniques

12.6 Safety Precautions

Failure Analysis and Design Considerations

13.1 Preventing Corrosion Failures by Design

13.2 Rudiments of Corrosion Failure Analysis

13.3 Information to Look For

13.4 Design for Corrosion Service

Part V Testing and Monitoring

Corrosion Testing and Monitoring

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Corrosion Testing

14.3 Corrosion Monitoring

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