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Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM) for Corrosion Monitoring

EFM is an electrochemical technique in which two sinusoidal potential signals are summed and applied to a corrosion sample through a potentiostat. The resulting current is measured and the time-domain data is converted to the frequency domain to measure the signal at the applied fundamental frequencies, at harmonics of the fundamental frequencies, and at intermodulation frequencies.