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Corrosion in Spain

The following map of the atmospheric corrosivity measured in Spain was adapted from "Atmospheric Corrosion of Copper in Ibero-America" by M. Morcillo, E. Almeida, M. Marrocos, and B. Rosales, Corrosion, Vol. 57, No. 11, pages 967-980.

Air Pollution in Spain

Spain's Environment Ministry (MMA) has a report (Vigilancia de la Calidad del Aire y Emisiones a la Atmósfera) on methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, total volatile organics (e.g. benzene), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur dioxide, ammonia, numerous metals, and ozone emissions. In 1998, 9,396 samples of ozone concentrations exceeded levels of 110 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) for an 8 hour period. These excesses accounted for a 50 % increase over the previous year. In 1999, thirty-eight ozone concentration samples exceeded the maximum allowable levels prompting general public alerts.

The majority of these excesses in Spain occurred adjacent to petrochemical plants. Between April 1998 and March 1999, the European Union was notified of Spain's air pollution excesses for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and suspended particles. The majority of excesses occurred in Barcelona, Spain.

With 39 air sampling stations in Galicia reporting to MMA, none showed exceedances of air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and suspended particles. An air sampling station has been established in Galicia (A Coruña) to supply data for the European Monitoring Evaluation Programme to determine background concentrations of N0x and S02, which can cause acid rain and irritate the respiratory system. Air pollutants in Galicia are slightly higher than found in other regions of Spain for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and suspended particles. Galicia emitted the largest amount of sulfur dioxide in 1996 estimated at 450,000 tons. N0x emissions in Galicia during 1996 were the fourth largest in Spain, estimated at 115 tons.

Other regions and countries: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Central America, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, North America, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, UK, USA, Venezuela

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