Corrosion Doctors site map Corrosion information hub: The Corrosion Doctor's Web site Corrosion engineering consultant



Site index

A to Z listing



Corrosion glossary


Famous scientists

Corrosion course

Distance Ed

Doomsday scenarios



Monitoring glossary

Photo gallery

Rare earths

Search this site

Textbook assignments

Toxic elements

Water glossary



[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

Water Glossary - I

  • Ice: A solid form of water.

  • Imhoff cone: A clear, cone-shaped container used to measure the volume of settle able solids in a specific volume of water.

  • Immiscibility: The inability of two or more solids or liquids to readily dissolve into one another.

  • Impermeable: Material that does not permit fluids to pass through.

  • Impervious: The quality or state of being impermeable; resisting penetration by water or plant roots. Impervious ground cover like concrete and asphalt affects quantity and quality of runoff.

  • Impoundment: A body of water such as a pond, confined by a dam, dike, floodgate or other barrier. It is used to collect and store water for future use.

  • Impurities: Particles or other objects that cause water to be unclear.

  • Inchoate water right: An unperfected water right.

  • Increasing block rate: Pricing that reduces water use by structuring water rates to increase per-unit charges as the amount used increases.

  • Indicator: Any biological entity or process, or community whose characteristics show the presence of specific environmental conditions or pollutants.

  • Indicator organisms: Microorganisms, such as coliforms, whose presence is indicative of pollution or of more harmful microorganism.

  • Indicator tests: Tests for a specific contaminant, group of contaminants, or constituent which signals the presence of something else (ex., coliforms indicate the presence of pathogenic bacteria).

  • Indirect discharge: Introduction of pollutants from a non-domestic source into a publicly owned wastewater treatment system. Indirect dischargers can be commercial or industrial facilities whose wastes enter local sewers.

  • Industrial wastewater facility: Facilities that produce, treat or dispose of wastewater not otherwise defined as a domestic wastewater; includes the runoff and leachate from areas that receive pollutants associated with industrial or commercial storage, handling, or processing.

  • Industrial water use: Water used for industrial purposes such as fabrication, processing, washing, and cooling, and includes such industries as steel, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, mining, and petroleum refining. The water may be obtained from a public supply or may be self supplied. See also public supply and self- supplied water.

  • Infiltration: The movement of water into soil or porous rock. Infiltration occurs as water flows through the larger pores of rock or between soil particles under the influence of gravity, or as a gradual wetting of small particles by capillary action.

  • Inflow: The entry of extraneous rainwater into a sewer system from sources other than infiltration, such as basement drains, sewer holes, storm drains, and street washing.

  • Influent: The stream of water that enters any system or treatment unit.

  • Inhibitor: chemical that interferes with a chemical reaction, such as precipitation.

  • Injection: The introduction of a chemical or medium into the process water to alter its chemistry or filter specific compounds.

  • Inland freshwater wetlands: Swamps, marshes, and bogs found inland beyond the coastal saltwater wetlands.

  • Inorganic: Matter other than plant or animal and not containing a combination of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, as in living things.

  • Instream flow: The amount of flow required to sustain stream values, including fish, wildlife, and recreation.

  • Instream use: Water that is used, but not withdrawn, from a ground- or surface-water source for such purposes as hydroelectric power generation, navigation, water-quality improvement, fish propagation, and recreation. Sometimes called non-withdrawal use or in-channel use.

  • Integrated resource planning: The management of two or more resources in the same general area; commonly includes water, soil, timber, grazing land, fish, wildlife, and recreation.

  • Interbasin transfer: The diversion of water from one drainage basin to one or more other drainage basins.

  • Interbasin transfer: The physical transfer of water from one watershed to another; regulated by the Texas Water Code.

  • Intermittent flow system: Alternating use, by an industry, of deionized water to remove contaminants from products and equipment.

  • Intermittent stream: One that flows periodically. Compare perennial stream.

  • Interstate water: According to law, interstate waters are defined as (1) rivers, lakes and other waters that flow across or form a part of state or international boundaries; (2) waters of the Great Lakes; (3) coastal waters whose scope has been defined to include ocean waters seaward to the territorial limits and waters along the coastline (including inland streams) influenced by the tide.

  • Interstices: The void or empty portion of rock or soil occupied by air or water.

  • Ion: An atom in a solution that is charged, either positively (cations) or negatively (anions).

  • Ion exchange: The replacement of undesirable ions with a certain charge by desirable ions of the same charge in a solution, by an ion-permeable absorbent.

  • Irrigation: The controlled application of water to cropland, hayland, and/or pasture to supplement that supplied through nature.

  • Irrigation district: A cooperative, self-governing public corporation set up as a subdivision of the State government, with definite geographic boundaries, organized and having taxing power to obtain and distribute water for irrigation of lands within the district; created under the authority of a State legislature with the consent of a designated fraction of the landowners or citizens.

  • Irrigation efficiency: The percentage of water applied, and which can be accounted for, in the soil moisture increase for consumptive use.

  • Irrigation field practices: Techniques that keep water in the field, more efficiently distribute water across the field, or encourage the retention of soil moisture.

  • Irrigation management strategies: Strategies to monitor soil and water conditions and collect information that helps in making decisions about scheduling application or improving the efficiency of the irrigation system.

  • Irrigation return flow: Water which is not consumptively used by plants and returns to a surface or ground water supply. Under conditions of water right litigation, the definition may be restricted to measurable water returning to the stream from which it was diverted.

  • Irrigation scheduling: Careful choice of irrigation application rates and timing to help irrigators maintain yields with less water.

  • Irrigation system modification: An addition to or an alteration of an existing irrigation system or the adoption of a new one.

  • Irrigation water: Water which is applied to assist crops in areas or during times where rainfall is inadequate.

  • Irrigation water use: Artificial application of water on lands to assist in the growing of crops and pastures or to maintain vegetative growth in recreational lands such as parks and golf courses.

  • Isohyet: Line that connects points of equal rainfall.

  • Isotherm: Line that connects points of equal temperature.

Water glossary